Glossary of Terms | CE Marking Handmade Toys Collective

Glossary of Terms

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Please note that the Glossary of Terms and the CE Wiki (for Community level members) are a continual work in progress, which will cross reference each other. If you have suggestions for topics that should be included or you would like to contribute yourself, please email for more information. As the content here and overall in the CE School section grows, you’ll find that the member resources available also evolve, grow and increase in value.



Accessible – Ability to access seams and internal stuffing (the accessibility of part or component)

Aquatic toy – A toy designed for use in shallow water.

Asphyxiation – The risk of suffocation through lack of air through the airways.



Ball – Spherical or elliptical toy – to be thrown, dropped, hit, kicked.

Batch Number –  A code assigned to the toy for traceability of type and materials used in manufacture.

Burn Rate – The distance your toy burns per second when performing the flammability test (EN71-2)

Burr – Rough  finish from inadequate finishing.



CE Marking – The process of testing a toys safety to EN71 and completing all relevant documentation.

Certificates – Paperwork for your technical file which proves that the materials are safe and free from heavy metals.

Chain – Series of links or rings connected together.

Choking – Risk and result of Asphyxiation.

Collapse – Sudden folding and crumpling of a structure.

Collectables – An item that although it may look like a toy is not intended for use in Play but is for an Adult collector.

Cord – A strap, cord or tie used as part of a toy, which has to conform to certain restrictions.

Crack – Fracture of material.

Crushing – Damage or injury resulted from compression.



Declaration of Conformity – The final piece of paperwork for your toy technical file which confirms it complies to safety standards.

Due Diligence – Doing all you can in the capacity of your small business to be sure that your toy is safe and complies to EN71



EN71 – The European standard for the safety of toys, it consists of 13 different parts.

The main ones we are concerned with are;

EN71-1:2011+A3:2014 – Mechanical and Physical Properties
EN71-2:2011 +A1:2014 – Flammability
EN71-3:2013 – Migration of certain elements

Expanding material – material that expands when in contact with water.



Fastening – Device which attached two or more components together.

Filling – Material or stuffing contained within a soft-filled toy or part therein.

Fixed Loop – Loop in a cord, the perimeter being fixed permanently.

Flammability – Ability for a material or toy to burn.

Flammability Testing – The process by which you test your toy in compliance with EN71-2 to calculate it’s burn rate.

Flaming Debris – Material that becomes detached during burning and continues to flame as it falls.

Flash Testing – A type of flammability testing performed on pieces of fabric to ensure its not highly flammable. Flash testing is required where the toy will be below 15cm in length.

Functional Toy – Toy which has a function, ie. a stove toy or toy iron that actually has heating properties.

Fuzz – Small bits of fibrous material that can be removed from a material or pile surface.





Harmonised Standard – The parts of the standard which have been accepted by all states as the best practice for testing toy safety. At present parts 9, 10 & 11 are not part of the harmonised standard.

Hanging Toys or Mobiles – There are specific clauses in the standards relating to these. More info on the Loops and Lengths wiki.

Heavy Metals – EN71-3 The Migration of certain elements, tests for 19 heavy metals. These include Aluminium, Antimony, Arsenic, Barium, Boron, Cadmium, Chromium III, Chromium IV, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium, Strontium, Tin, Organic Tin and Zinc.



Internal Component – A part of a toy that is secured firmly inside the toy.




Keepsake – Keepsake or memory items are made from items of clothing supplied by the customer and are then turned into an item that often looks like a toy.


Labelling – A swing tag or sewn in tag which is an important part in ensuring traceability when it is sold.

Loops & Lengths – Cord, Straps, Loops, Lengths, Mobiles & Hanging toys all have certain restrictions within the standards.



Manufacturer – The company which creates the materials used in the making of the toy. The person or company whom creates/makes the toy item.

Molten Drips – Falling drops of molten material.



Noose – Loop in a cord which tightens as pulled.



Onerous Seam – The weakest seam on the toy that is most likely to break under physical strain. This is often the hand sewn closing seam.


Packaging – Material accompanying the toy when purchased and intended to have no play value.

Paperboard – Pressed cellulose fibres with weight over 400gsm, but excluding MDF.  The card of cardboard typically used in board books.





Rattle – Hand held toy for children too young to sit unaided, designed to emit sound when shook.

Removable Component – Additional part of a toy intended to be removed without a tool. ie. a dolls dress or similar accessories.



Self Certification – The act of testing and certifying the toy yourself opposed to sending it to an accredited testing lab. It is legal to do this.

Small Parts – Parts of the toy that could fit into the small parts cylinder if removed.

Small Parts Container / Cylinder – A cylinder of the dimensions as stated in EN71 used to check if a small part would cause a choking hazard. If the part fits completely within the cylinder then it would be a choking hazard.

Strap – Strip of material used to flexibly fasten, secure, carry or hold.

Suffocation – Closing flow of air resulting from obstruction of mouth or nose externally.

Suppliers – A shop or online retailer that sells materials but does not make them.

Surface Flash – Rapid spread of flame over surface of a material.



Tangled Loop – Loop created from twisted or snagged cord or cord.

Technical File – The documentation that provides all the information on the safety of a toy.

Toy bag – Bag clearly with play value, intended for play and play activity.















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